Cancer still remains a dreaded word, but with early diagnosis and good medical care, the disease can definitely be beaten. There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you have will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. You may also have immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy.
Types of Treatment
Medical Oncology- Medical Oncology offers cancer treatment through the use of chemotherapy and allied drugs.
Surgical Oncology- Surgery is the most important part of cancer treatment- whether diagnosis, staging or treatment. In almost all tumours, surgery works best for controlling the disease and curing it in early stages.
Radiation Oncology- Radiation Oncology is the most modern branch of cancer treatment which offers incision-less and pain-less treatment by using high dose of targeted radio-active radiations (or X-rays) to control or kill malignant or cancer cells. Cancers including Breast, Rectum, Lungs and many more can be treated using radiation oncology.
Types of Cancer
As with many cancers, the risk of developing throat cancer increases with age, with most people being over the age of 65. Men are two to three times more likely than women to develop throat cancer in their lifetime.Risk factors differ depending on where the cancer grows in the throat.
Throat cancer is often grouped into two categories: pharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer. Pharyngeal cancer forms in the pharynx (the hollow tube that runs from behind your nose to the top of your windpipe). Laryngeal cancer forms in the larynx (your voice box).
To check for throat cancer, doctor will perform a laryngoscopy or will refer you to a specialist who is trained to do these procedures. This procedure gives your doctor a closer view of your throat. After you are given a local anesthetic, your doctor inserts a long flexible tube down your throat, and uses a light and a mirror to examine your throat. If this test reveals abnormalities, your doctor may take a tissue sample from your throat (biopsy) and test the sample for cancer.
Lung Cancer The early symptoms of lung cancer may be a slight cough or shortness of breath, depending on which part of the lung is affected. As the cancer develops, these symptoms may become more severe or intense. Like many other types of cancer, lung cancer may also cause systemic symptoms, like a loss of appetite or general fatigue. Smoking tobacco is the number one risk factor for lung cancer, although people who have never smoked can develop lung cancer, too. If you have been smoking for years, you may believe it is "too late" to quit. However, quitting at any point in time reduces your risk for developing lung cancer, as well as other cancers.
Types of Lung Cancer
1.Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer- A family history of lung cancer may increase your non-small cell lung cancer risks. Some evidence points toward a genetic link in a few cases. However, researchers have not determined whether shared environmental or behavioral factors, such as radon gas or smoking, plays a greater role in a family's history of lung cancer than do genetics.
2.Small Cell Cancer- Anyone previously diagnosed with lung cancer or anyone with a family history of the disease has an increased risk. In particular, people who inherit chromosome 6 are more likely to develop lung cancer.
3.Metastatic Lung Cancer- For smokers, the amount and rate at which you smoke can increase your chances of lung cancer. Since the symptoms often go unnoticed, the chance of the cancer spreading is also high.
Small cell lung cancer is aggressive and spreads at a faster rate than non-small cell lung cancer. Large cell carcinoma, a type of non-small cell lung cancer, also spreads rapidly. These are the test done to diagnose lung cancer X-ray, CT scan, Lab tests, Lung nodule analysis, CT angiogram, PET/CT scan, Biopsy, Endobronchial ultrasound, Autofluorescence bronchoscopy, Four-day lung nodule diagnosis.
Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach, and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs. It may grow along the stomach wall into the esophagus or small intestine.
The cancer may also extend through the stomach wall and spread to nearby lymph nodes and organs, such as the liver, pancreas and colon. It may spread to distant organs, such as the lungs, the lymph nodes above the collarbone and to a womans ovaries.
Types of Stomach Cancer
3. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
4. Carcinoid tumors
These are the tests done to diagnose stomach cancer Endoscopic procedures, Upper gastrointestinal series, Biopsy, Lab tests, Ultrasound, CT scan, PET/CT scan, MRI.
Cancer begins when healthy cells in the prostate change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.
Prostate cancer is somewhat unusual, compared with other types of cancer, because many prostate tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Some prostate cancers grow very slowly and may not cause symptoms or problems for years. Even when prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it often can be successfully managed, allowing men with prostate cancer to live with good health for several years. However, if the cancer cannot be well controlled with treatment, it can cause pain, fatigue, and sometimes, death. The tests done to diagnose prostate cancer are Biopsy, Bone scan, CT scan, Digital rectal exam, Genetic tests, Lab tests, MRI, PET/CT Scan,PSA test, Ultrasound.
Breast cancer is the most leading and life threatening cancer originating in breast tissue that affects most women worldwide. It is the principle cause of mortality in the women across the world. Breast cancer in its early stage is very difficult to diagnose as it does not cause any symptoms and usually the pain and discomfort in breast is absent.
Any of the following changes in the breast may indicate the risk of presence of breast cancer
1. Skin changes, such as swelling, redness, or other visible differences in one or both breasts
2. An increase in size or change in shape of the breast(s)
3. Changes in the appearance of one or both nipples
4. Nipple discharge other than breast milk
5. General pain in/on any part of the breast
6. Lumps or nodes felt on or inside of the breast The tests done to diagnose breast cancer are Lab tests, Biopsy, Ultrasound, Mammography, MRI, PET/CT scan, Bone scan, Digital breast tomosynthesis, Metastatic cancer detection.
Cervical cancer begins in the cervix, the narrow organ at the bottom of the uterus that connects to the vagina. The cervix dilates during childbirth to allow for passage of a baby.
Symptoms of cervical cancer are vaginal bleeding, unusual vaginal discharge and Pelvic pain.
In most cases, cervical cancer does not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Routine Pap screening is important to check for abnormal cells in the cervix, so they can be monitored and treated as early as possible. Most women are advised to get a Pap test starting at age 21.
The tests done to diagnose cervical cancer are Pap test, Pelvic exam, PET/CT scan, Colposcopy, Cone biopsy LEEP, MRI, CT scan, Lab tests, Sentinel lymph node biopsy.
Uterine cancer begins in the uterus, the hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis where a baby grows during pregnancy. Abnormal bleeding is a common sign of uterine cancer. Routine pelvic exams may improve the likelihood of early detection however; there are no standard screening tests for uterine cancer. Uterine cancer symptoms include vaginal bleeding or spotting, abnormal vaginal discharge, Pelvic pain or pressure.
There are two types of Uterine Cancer
1. Endometrial cancer
2. Uterine sarcoma
The tests done to diagnose uterine cancer are Pelvic exam, Biopsy, Ultrasound, CT Scan, Dilation & curettage, Hysteroscopy, MRI, Lab tests, Sentinel lymph node biopsy.
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