Our heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood to our body. Our heart is at the center of our circulatory
system. This system consists of a network of blood vessels, such as arteries, veins, and capillaries. These
blood vessels carry blood to and from all areas of our body. Our heart is vital to our health and nearly
everything that goes on in our body. Without the heart's pumping action, blood can't move throughout
our body. A healthy heart supplies our body with the right amount of blood at the rate needed to work
well. If disease or injury weakens your heart, our body's organs won't receive enough blood to work
Our heart is made up of many parts working together to pump blood. In a healthy heart, all the parts work well so that our heart pumps blood normally. As a result, all parts of our body that depend on the heart to deliver blood also stay healthy. Heart disease can disrupt a heart's normal electrical system and pumping functions. Diseases and conditions of the heart's muscle make it hard for our heart to properly pump blood.
Your coronary arteries play a vital role in keeping your heart healthy. But in some people, the coronary arteries can become narrowed or blocked because fatty deposits, called atheroma, have built up within the artery walls. Coronary angioplasty helps improve the blood supply to your heart muscle by widening narrowed coronary arteries and allowing blood to flow through again. Angioplasty can help to relieve angina symptoms and is also used as an emergency treatment for people who've had a heart attack.
2.Heart valve replacement
Valve Replacement-The aortic valve and the mitral valve are the most commonly replaced valves. Pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacements are fairly uncommon in adults.
Replacing a narrowed valve- The most common valve surgical procedure is aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis, or narrowing of the aortic valve. Mitral stenosis is another condition that sometimes requires a valve replacement procedure.
Replacing a leaky valve- Aortic regurgitation, (sometimes referred to as aortic insufficiency) is another common valve problem that may require valve replacement. Regurgitation means that the valve allows blood to return back through the valve and into the heart instead of moving it forward and out to the body. Aortic regurgitation can eventually lead to heart failure.
Mitral regurgitation may also require a valve replacement. In this condition, the mitral valve allows oxygenated blood to flow backwards into the lungs instead of continuing through the heart as it should. People with this condition may experience shortness of breath, irregular heartbeats and chest pain.
Surgical options for valve replacement include
Mechanical valve - a long-lasting valve made of durable materials.
Tissue valve - which may include human or animal donor tissue.
Ross Procedure - "Borrowing" your healthy valve and moving it into the position of the damaged valve aortic valve.
TAVI/TAVR procedure -Transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The procedure chosen will depend on the valve that needs replacement, the severity of symptoms and the risk of surgery. Some procedures may require long-term medication to guard against blood clots.
3.Heart bypass surgery
Doctor suggests a bypass operation to help improve the blood supply to our heart muscle. This will help to relieve angina symptoms and improve our quality of life.
Arteries get narrowed when fatty deposits build up on the inner walls of our arteries. The aim of coronary bypass surgery is to bypass − or 'get around' the narrowed sections of our coronary arteries. The surgeon does this by grafting a blood vessel between the aorta (the main blood vessel leaving the heart) and a point along the coronary artery, past the narrowed area.
In most cases, at least one of the blood vessels used as a bypass graft is an artery from our chest called the internal mammary artery.
Blood vessels such as a vein from our legs and sometimes an artery from our arms are used for the other grafts. We can have one graft but it's more common to have two, three or four (often called double, triple or quadruple bypasses).
A heart transplant surgery may be considered if we have severe heart failure. If your condition is serious and other treatments are not managing to improve things or control your symptoms, your cardiologist may send you to a heart transplant centre for a transplant assessment.
5.ASD Heart port surgery
A congenital heart disease, Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall (septum) between the top two chambers of the heart (the left atrium and the right atrium). In a normal heart, the left atrium contains blood that is high in oxygen and the right atrium contains blood that is low in oxygen. In a heart with ASD, the hole between the left and right atrium causes blood from both chambers to become mixed, leading to improper circulation and oxygenation of the blood.
Minimally invasive surgery can be used to close atrial septal defects, allowing the procedure to be performed through small incisions and without stopping the heart, or separating the breastbone (sternum) and ribcage, or requiring a heart-lung machine to be used.
6. VSD Closure
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the persistence of one or more holes in the septum that separates the left and right ventricles of the heart. The ventricles are a single chamber at about four weeks of gestation but by eight weeks it has been divided into two. Failure of development of any part of the septum results in a defect. It may vary considerably in terms of size and haemodynamic consequences. In adults a VSD may be acquired as a complication of myocardial infarction or trauma.
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