Cancer results when cellular changes cause the uncontrolled growth and division of cells.
Certain forms of cancer result in visible growths called tumours, while others, such as leukaemia, do not. Cancerous cells can form tumours, impair the immune system and cause other changes that prevent the body from functioning regularly.
There are many causes of cancer, and some are preventable. In addition to Smoking, risk factors for cancer include:
- Heavy alcohol consumption
- Excess body weight
- Physical inactivity
- Poor nutrition
Other causes of cancer are not preventable. Currently, the most significant unpreventable risk factor is age.
Genetic factors can contribute to the development of cancer. Changes in the genes can lead to faulty instructions, and cancer can result. Finally, a person can inherit a predisposition for a type of cancer.
Types of Cancer
The most common type of cancer is breast cancer, followed by lung and prostate cancers. Each year, around the world thousands of people receive a diagnosis of one of the following types of cancer:
- Colon and Rectal
- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Breast Cancer
- Liver & Bile Duct Cancer
- Lung Cancer
- Pancreatic Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
- Skin Cancer
- Thyroid Cancer
- Uterine Cancer
- Brain & Spinal Tumours
Other forms are less common. Research reveals that there are over 100 types of cancer.
Signs and symptoms
Fatigue; Lumps; Weight fluctuation, Skin changes including sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles ; changes in bowel or bladder habits; persistent cough; difficulty swallowing; hoarseness; unexplained muscle or joint pain, fevers or night sweat, etc
Doctors usually prescribe treatments based on the type of cancer, its stage at diagnosis, and the person’s overall health. Innovative research has fueled the development of new medications and treatment technologies.
Few of the approaches to cancer treatment are as follows:
- Chemotherapy aims to kill cancerous cells with medications that target rapidly dividing cells. The drugs can also help shrink tumours, but the side effects can be severe. The side effects of chemotherapy include hair loss. However, advances in treatment are improving the outlook for people with cancer.
- Hormone therapy involves taking medications that change how certain hormones work or interfere with the body’s ability to produce them. When hormones play a significant role, as with prostate and breast cancers, this is a common approach.
- Immunotherapy uses medications and other treatments to boost the immune system and encourage it to fight cancerous cells. Two examples of these treatments are checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transfer.
- Precision or personalised medicine, is a newer, developing approach. It involves using genetic testing to determine the best treatments for a person’s particular presentation of cancer. Researchers have yet to show that it can effectively treat all types of cancer, however.
- Radiation therapy uses high-dose radiation to kill cancerous cells. Also, a doctor may recommend using radiation to shrink a tumour before surgery or reduce tumour-related symptoms.
- Stem cell transplant can be especially beneficial for people with blood-related cancers, such as leukaemia or lymphoma. It involves removing cells, such as red or white blood cells, that chemotherapy or radiation has destroyed. Lab technicians then strengthen the cells and put them back into the body.
- Surgery is often a part of a treatment plan when a person has a cancerous tumour. Also, a surgeon may remove lymph nodes to reduce or prevent the disease’s widespread.
- Targeted therapies perform functions within cancerous cells to prevent them from multiplying. They can also boost the immune system. Two examples of these therapies are small-molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies.
Doctors will often employ more than one type of treatment to maximise effectiveness and customise the treatment options per need of the hour.
India is becoming the most preferred healthcare destination globally and is one of the most sought after country for its advanced treatment of cancer.
India offers comprehensive cancer care that comprises of prevention, diagnoses, treatment, reconstruction and rehabilitation services. Organ specific cancer specialists ensure personalised treatment for highest success rate of cancer treatment in India.
The superlative medical treatment provided by the skilled doctors in world-class infrastructure at nearly one third the cost compared to Western Europe, North America and some Southeast Asian countries adds up to India’s credentials.
India is a trusted name in advanced cancer treatment for international patients, as the hospitals here have not just a highly qualified Cancer Surgery team with the best rehabilitation, palliative care and alternative cancer treatment but India as well houses best cancer hospitals in India with multi specialities dedicated to cancer treatment across Hyderabad, Chennai, Bengaluru, Madurai, Kolkata, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bhubaneswar & Bilaspur, Faridabad, Delhi NCR etc.
The Cancer care system at Indian Hospitals involve over hundreds of surgical and radiation Oncology specialists as well as diagnostic consultants who offer advanced Cancer Care at most cost effective and affordable range. Comprehensive Cancer Care in India is advocated through cutting- edge clinical solutions, research, extraordinary patient care and infrastructure of world-class standards and advanced cancer care facilities. Immunotherapy under ‘Precision Oncology’ is next generation application in cancer treatment and a wider subject covered in India.
The Departments of Cancer in top ten cancer hospitals in India have one of the best doctors in oncology leading the way in improving patient outcomes with cutting-edge patient care and standards. The high success rate of cancer treatments conducted in India determine best basic, clinical and surgical outcomes. Indian Onco Surgeons have expertise in performing all major surgeries related to various forms of cancer like anal cancer, breast cancer, bone cancer, brain & spinal tumours, bladder cancer, blood cancer (leukaemia), lung cancer, liver cancer, colon cancer, bile duct cancer, eye cancer, esophagus, endometrial cancers, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, kidney cancer, ovarian cancer, oral cancer , penile cancer,etc. Besides this, cancer surgeons in India also specialise in Laparoscopic surgery, also called the key-hole surgery or minimally invasive surgery and play a great role in the field of advanced cancer treatment.